Measuring environmental change requires suitable samples, such as materials collected from biological indicators. These are organic materials or organisms that are sensitive to, and suitably reflect, changes in environmental conditions.
Between the Congo and Orange Rivers lie a range of plateaus, inselbergs, and escarpments. These southwestern African highlands are home to several hundred endemic plants and animals, species that occur nowhere else in the world.
The Greater Etosha Landscape (GEL) in northern-central Namibia exemplifies global conservation challenges, especially those facing large conservation landscapes, such as South Africa’s Greater Kruger NP, Tanzania’s Serengeti NP, the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in the USA and Ranthambhore NP in India.